Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by an external force. This may be caused by accidents, falls, hits, weapons, and other causes. Major trauma is injury that has the potential to cause prolonged disability or death. In 2013, 4.8 million people world-wide died from injuries, up from 4.3 million in 1990. More than 30% of these deaths were transport-related injuries. In 2013, 367,000 children under the age of five died from injuries, down from 766,000 in 1990. Injuries are the cause of 9% of all deaths, and are the sixth-leading cause of death in the world.
The World Health Organization (WHO) developed the International Classification of External Causes of Injury (ICECI). Under this system, injuries are classified by mechanism of injury, objects/substances producing injury, place of occurrence, activity when injured, the role of human intent, and additional modules. These codes allow the identification of distributions of injuries in specific populations and case identification for more detailed research on causes and preventive efforts.
The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics developed the Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS). Under this system injuries are classified by nature, part of body affected, source and secondary source, and event or exposure. The OIICS was first published in 1992 and has been updated several times since.
The Orchard Sports Injury and Illness Classification System (OSIICS), previously OSICS, is used to classify injuries to enable research into specific sports injuries.
Causes for injuries fall under two categories: intentional and accidental. Intentional injuries include acts of violence and war, or be can self-imposed like suicide or self-harm. Accidental injuries can come from falling or motor vehicle accidents. Some cases of accidental injuries are injury by stingray or lightning injuries.
- Strain, repetitive strain, or sprain
- Other external or internal injuries
- Wound, an injury in which skin is torn, cut or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). In pathology, it specifically refers to a sharp injury which damages the dermis of the skin.
- Nerve injury
- Spinal cord injury
- Brachial plexus injury
- Sciatic nerve injury
- Injury of axillary nerve
- Soft tissue injury
- Tracheobronchial injury
- Acute kidney injury
- Anterior cruciate ligament injury
- Musculoskeletal injury
- Articular cartilage injuries
- Acute lung injury
- Pancreatic injury
- Thoracic aorta injury
- Biliary injury
- rock climbing
- Reverse bite injury
- Occupational injury
- Ventilator-associated lung injury
- Sea urchin injury
- Illness and injuries during spaceflight
Injury severity score
The injury severity score (ISS) is a medical score to assess trauma severity. It correlates with mortality, morbidity, and hospitalization time after trauma. It is used to define the term major trauma (polytrauma), recognized when the ISS is greater than 15. The AIS Committee of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine designed and updates the scale.
- List of causes of death by rate
- First aid
- Direct DNA damage
- Ventilator-associated lung injury
- Transfusion-related acute lung injury
- Crush injury
- Needlestick injury
- Penile strangulation
- "Wounds and Injuries: MedlinePlus". Nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-20.
- GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMC 4340604. PMID 25530442.
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- "The top 10 causes of death". Archived from the original on March 14, 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Stein DM, Santucci RA (July 2015). "An update on urotrauma". Current Opinion in Urology. 25 (4): 323–30. doi:10.1097/MOU.0000000000000184. PMID 26049876. S2CID 26994715.
- "International Classification of External Causes of Injury (ICECI)". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on October 17, 2004. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- "Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- Rae, K; Orchard, J (May 2007). "The Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS) version 10". Clin J Sport Med. 17 (3): 201–04. doi:10.1097/jsm.0b013e318059b536. PMID 17513912. S2CID 31994177.
- Orchard, JW; Meeuwisse, W; Derman, W; Hägglund, M; Soligard, T; Schwellnus, M; Bahr, R (April 2020). "Sport Medicine Diagnostic Coding System (SMDCS) and the Orchard Sports Injury and Illness Classification System (OSIICS): revised 2020 consensus versions". British Journal of Sports Medicine. 54 (7): 397–401. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2019-101921. PMID 32114487. S2CID 211724559.
- "Top 10 Preventable Injuries". Injury Facts. Retrieved 2020-10-18.
- Nancy Garrick, Deputy Director (2017-04-10). "Sprains and Strains". National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Retrieved 2020-10-18.
- "Top 10 Most Common Sports Injuries". www.unitypoint.org. Retrieved 2020-10-19.
- Wright, D. M.; Royle, T. J.; Marshall, T. (June 2001). "Indoor rock climbing: who gets injured?". British Journal of Sports Medicine. 35 (3): 181–185. doi:10.1136/bjsm.35.3.181. ISSN 0306-3674. PMC 1724320. PMID 11375878.
- Baker SP, O'Neill B, Haddon W, Long WB (1974). "The Injury Severity Score: a method for describing patients with multiple injuries and evaluating emergency care". The Journal of Trauma. 14 (3): 187–96. doi:10.1097/00005373-197403000-00001. PMID 4814394.
- Copes, W.S.; H.R. Champion; W.J. Sacco; M.M. Lawnick; S.L. Keast; L.W. Bain (1988). "The Injury Severity Score revisited". The Journal of Trauma. 28 (1): 69–77. doi:10.1097/00005373-198801000-00010. PMID 3123707.
- International Trauma Conferences (registered trauma charity providing trauma education for medical professionals worldwide)
- Trauma.org (trauma resources for medical professionals)
- Emergency Medicine Research and Perspectives (emergency medicine procedure videos)
- American Trauma Society
- Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine