Globalization and travel
Globalization facilitates the spread of disease and increases the number of travelers who will be exposed to a different health environment. Major content areas of travel medicine include the global epidemiology of health risks to the traveler, vaccinology, malaria prevention, and pre-travel counseling designed to maintain the health of the approximately 600 million international travelers. It has been estimated that about 80 million travelers go annually from developed to developing countries.
Mortality and morbidity
Mortality studies indicate that cardiovascular disease accounts for most deaths during travel (50–70%), while injury and accident follow (~25%). Infectious disease accounts for about 2.8–4% of deaths during/from travel. Morbidity studies suggest that about half of people from a developed country who stay one month in a developing country will get sick. Traveler's diarrhea is the most common problem encountered.
The field of travel medicine encompasses a wide variety of disciplines including epidemiology, infectious disease, public health, tropical medicine, high altitude physiology, travel related obstetrics, psychiatry, occupational medicine, military and migration medicine, and environmental health.
Travel medicine can primarily be divided into four main topics: prevention (vaccination and travel advice), assistance (dealing with repatriation and medical treatment of travelers), wilderness medicine (e.g. high-altitude medicine, cruise ship medicine, expedition medicine, etc.) and access to health care, provided by travel insurance.
Travel medicine includes pre-travel consultation and evaluation, contingency planning during travel, and post-travel follow-up and care. Information is provided by the WHO that addresses health issues for travelers for each country as well as the specific health risks of air travel itself. Also, the CDC publishes valuable and up-to-date information. Key areas to consider are vaccination and the seven I's:
- Insects: repellents, mosquito nets, antimalarial medication
- Ingestions: safety of drinking water, food
- Indiscretion: HIV, sexually transmitted disease
- Injuries: accident avoidance, personal safety, safety around animals
- Immersion: schistosomiasis
- Immunization (pre-travel vaccination)
- Insurance: coverage and services during travel, access to health care
Specific disease problems
Malaria prevention consists of preventing or reducing exposure to mosquitos by using screened rooms, air-conditioning, and nets, and use of repellents (usually DEET). In addition, chemoprophylaxis is started before travel, during the time of potential exposure, and for 4 weeks (chloroquine, doxycycline, or mefloquine) or 7 days (atovaquone/proguanil or primaquine) after leaving the risk area. See detailed CDC site.
The traveler should have a medication kit to provide for necessary and useful medication. Based on circumstances, it should also include malaria prophylaxis, condoms, and medication to combat traveler's diarrhea. In addition, a basic first aid kit can be of use.
Studies have shown there are four main medical problems that travellers develop—diarrhoea or gut problems, respiratory problems, wounds and pain. The medical kit should at least address these common things.
Research has also shown that the best treatment for travellers diarrhoea is to take an antibiotic (e.g. ciprofloxacin) plus a stopper (e.g. loperamide). Due to bacterial resistance, different parts of the world require different antibiotics. It is best to consult a travel doctor to sort out the best medical kit for the exact destination and medical history of the person travelling.
- Air travel
- American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
- Carte Jaune international certificate of vaccination
- Global Infectious Disease Epidemiology Network (GIDEON)
- Health hazards of air travel
- Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp
- International health
- Jet lag
- Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
- Tropical disease
- Walter Reed Tropical Medicine Course – Silver Spring, Maryland, US
- Wilderness acquired diarrhea
- Supercourse on Travel Medicine Archived 2006-09-01 at the Wayback Machine
- Aw B, Boraston S, Botten D, Cherniwchan D (Feb 2011). "Travel medicine". Canadian Family Physician. 60 (12): 1091–1103. PMC 4264804. PMID 25500599.
- WHO Travel Information Archived 2007-12-17 at the Wayback Machine
- CDC re: Yellow Fever Archived 2006-07-02 at the Wayback Machine
- Barasheed, Osamah; Rashid, Harunor; Heron, Leon; Ridda, Iman; Haworth, Elizabeth; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan; Dwyer, Dominic E.; Booy, Robert (November 2014). "Influenza Vaccination Among Australian Hajj Pilgrims: Uptake, Attitudes, and Barriers". Journal of Travel Medicine. 21 (6): 384–390. doi:10.1111/jtm.12146. PMID 25145836.
- CDC re: Meningococcal Meningitis Archived 2006-09-22 at the Wayback Machine
- CDC re:Malaria Archived 2006-09-22 at the Wayback Machine
- "Health risks and precautions: general considerations - Contents of a basic medical kit" (PDF). International travel and health. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2010-07-04.
- CDC Travelers' Health - includes information on destinations, outbreaks, and recommended or required vaccinations
- International Association for Medical Assistance to Travellers (IAMAT)
- International Society of Travel Medicine
- WHO - List of Country Members - includes information on outbreaks and health profiles