The Montessori Education System and the Desire to Learn

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In Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Paulo Freire talks about what he calls the banking system of training. Within the banking system the coed is seen as an object by which the instructor should place data. The scholar has no duty for cognition of any type; the coed should merely memorize or internalize what the instructor tells her or him. Paulo Freire was very a lot against the banking system. He argued that the banking system is a system of management and never a system meant to efficiently educate. Within the banking system the instructor is supposed to mildew and alter the habits of the scholars, typically in a manner that nearly resembles a combat. The instructor tries to drive data down the coed’s throat that the coed might not consider or care about.

This course of ultimately leads most college students to dislike college. It additionally leads them to develop a resistance and a destructive perspective in the direction of studying normally, to the purpose the place most individuals will not search data except it’s required for a grade in a category. Freire thought that the one strategy to have an actual training, by which the scholars interact in cognition, was to alter from the banking system into what he outlined as problem-posing training. Freire described how a problem-posing academic system might work in Pedagogy of the Oppressed by saying, “College students, as they’re more and more posed with issues referring to themselves on the planet and with the world, will really feel more and more challenged and obliged to reply to that problem. As a result of they apprehend the problem as interrelated to different issues inside a complete context not as a theoretical query, the ensuing comprehension tends to be more and more crucial and thus always much less alienated”(81). The academic system developed by the Italian doctor and educator Maria Montessori presents a examined and efficient type of problem-posing training that leads its college students to extend their want to study versus inhibiting it.

Freire presents two main issues with the banking idea. The primary one is that within the banking idea a pupil just isn’t required to be cognitively lively. The scholar is supposed to easily memorize and repeat data, to not perceive it. This inhibits the scholars’ creativity, destroys their curiosity within the topic, and transforms them into passive learners who do not perceive or consider what they’re being taught however settle for and repeat it as a result of they haven’t any different choice. The second and extra dramatic consequence of the banking idea is that it offers an infinite energy to those that select what’s being taught to oppress those that are obliged to study it and settle for it. Freire explains that the issues lies in that the instructor holds all of the keys, has all of the solutions and does all of the pondering. The Montessori method to training does the precise reverse. It makes college students do all of the pondering and drawback fixing in order that they arrive at their very own conclusions. The lecturers merely assist information the coed, however they don’t inform the coed what’s true or false or how an issue could be solved.

Within the Montessori system, even when a pupil finds a strategy to resolve an issue that’s slower or much less efficient than a regular mechanical manner of fixing the issue, the instructor is not going to intervene with the coed’s course of as a result of this manner the coed learns to search out options by himself or herself and to consider inventive methods to work on totally different issues.

The academic system in america, particularly from grade college to the tip of highschool, is nearly similar to the banking method to training that Freire described. Throughout highschool most of what college students do is sit in a category and take notes. They’re then graded on how properly they full homework and initiatives and eventually they’re examined to indicate that they’ll reproduce or use the data which was taught. More often than not the scholars are solely receptors of data they usually take no half within the creation of information. One other manner by which the U.S. training system is virtually similar to the banking system of training is the grading system. The grades of scholars principally replicate how a lot they adjust to the instructor’s concepts and the way a lot they’re prepared to observe instructions. Grades replicate submission to authority and the willingness to do what’s informed greater than they replicate one’s intelligence, curiosity within the class, or understanding of the fabric that’s being taught. For example, in a authorities class in america a pupil who doesn’t agree {that a} consultant democracy is superior to another type of authorities will do worse than a pupil who merely accepts {that a} consultant democracy is healthier than a direct democracy, socialism, communism, or one other type of social system. The U.S. training system rewards those that agree with what’s being taught and punishes those that don’t.

Moreover, it discourages college students from questioning and doing any pondering of their very own. Due to the repetitive and insipid nature of our training system, most college students dislike highschool, and in the event that they do properly on their work, it’s merely for the aim of acquiring a grade versus studying or exploring a brand new concept.

The Montessori Methodology advocates little one based mostly educating, letting the scholars take management of their very own training. In E.M Standing’s The Montessori Revolution in Schooling, Standing says that the Montessori Methodology “is a technique based mostly on the precept of freedom in a ready atmosphere”(5). Research completed on two teams of scholars of the ages of 6 and 12 evaluating those that study in a Montessori to those that study in a regular college atmosphere present that regardless of the Montessori system having no grading system and no compulsory work load, it does in addition to the usual system in each English and social sciences; however Montessori college students do a lot better in arithmetic, sciences, and drawback fixing. The Montessori system permits for college kids to have the ability to discover their pursuits and curiosity freely. Due to this the Montessori system pushes college students towards the lively pursuit of information for pleasure, which means that college students will need to study and can discover out about issues that curiosity them just because it’s enjoyable to take action.

Maria Montessori began to develop what’s now referred to as the Montessori Methodology of training within the early twentieth century.

The Montessori Methodology focuses on the relations between the kid, the grownup, and the atmosphere. The kid is seen as a person in improvement. The Montessori system has an implied notion of letting the kid be what the kid would naturally be. Montessori believed the usual training system causes youngsters to lose many infantile traits, a few of that are thought of to be virtues. In Loeffler’s Montessori in Up to date American Tradition, Loeffler states that “among the many traits that disappear aren’t solely untidiness, disobedience, sloth, greed, egoism, quarrelsomeness, and instability, but additionally the so-called ‘inventive creativeness’, enjoyment of tales, attachment to people, play, submissiveness and so forth”. Due to this perceived lack of the kid, the Montessori system works to allow a toddler to naturally develop self-confidence in addition to the power and willingness to actively search data and discover distinctive options to issues by pondering creatively. One other essential distinction in how youngsters study within the Montessori system is that within the Montessori system a toddler has no outlined time slot by which to carry out a activity. As a substitute the kid is allowed to carry out a activity for so long as he needs. This leads youngsters to have a greater capability to pay attention and give attention to a single activity for an prolonged time period than youngsters have in the usual training system.

The function which the grownup or instructor has within the Montessori system marks one other basic distinction between the Montessori s Methodology and the usual training system. With the Montessori Methodology the grownup just isn’t meant to always educate and order the coed. The grownup’s job is to information the kid in order that the kid will proceed to pursue his curiosities and develop his or her personal notions of what’s actual, proper, and true. Montessori describes the kid as a person in intense, fixed change. From commentary Montessori concluded that if allowed to develop by himself, a toddler would at all times discover equilibrium along with his atmosphere, which means he would study to not mistreat others, for instance, and to work together positively along with his friends. That is essential as a result of it results in one of many Montessori Methodology’s most deep-seated concepts, which is that adults shouldn’t let their presence be felt by the youngsters. Which means that though an grownup is within the atmosphere with the scholars, the grownup doesn’t essentially work together with the scholars except the scholars ask the grownup a query or request assist. Moreover, the grownup should make it in order that the scholars don’t really feel like they’re being noticed or judged in any manner. The grownup could make ideas to the youngsters, however by no means orders them or tells them what to do or learn how to do it. The grownup should not be felt as an authority determine, however relatively nearly as one other peer of the youngsters.

The consequence of this, not surprisingly, is that rather a lot much less ‘work’ will get completed by the scholars. Nonetheless, the scholars’ improvement is dramatically higher within the Montessori system than in a regular training system. However how can college students who haven’t any obligation to do any work presumably compete with college students who’re taught in the usual system and do far more work at school and at house? I consider the reply lies in that whereas college students taught in the usual manner are always being pushed in the direction of disliking college and doing issues mechanically with out actually interested by it, Montessori college students are led to actively discover their pursuits and luxuriate in doing so. Moreover, Montessori college students are always engaged in cognition. They’re constantly studying to suppose in several methods and creating options to issues from scratch, versus college students in the usual technique of training who solely resolve issues with the instruments or data that the instructor offers them to make use of.

The ultimate essential facet of the Montessori Methodology is the atmosphere by which the coed learns and explores. As talked about earlier than, it’s of utmost significance that the youngsters really feel like they’re secure and free to do what they need for so long as they need. It is usually essential for the youngsters to have a wide range of didactic materials to play and study with. These could be so simple as playing cards with totally different letters which the scholars use to make totally different phrases with. On this manner the coed can get the concept of the letter being a bodily object which could be moved and manipulated to formulate phrases versus merely an summary idea which he should write repeatedly on a chunk of paper. Montessori describes a copious quantity of didactic supplies that she used. She additionally describes how efficient they have been at serving to the youngsters grasp ideas such because the formation of sentences, sq. roots, and division. The didactic supplies don’t simply assist the scholars grasp the idea of various abstractions from actuality, additionally they make studying a recreation and this makes college students develop a pure pleasure for studying and interested by summary ideas. In The Montessori Revolution in Schooling, Standing talks a couple of younger woman who was studying to learn and performed a recreation by which she tried to learn phrases from playing cards containing totally different phrases marked with totally different ranges of problem. Standing states in regards to the woman, “She was pretty dashing at this mental meals. However even in Set 2 a lot of the phrases appeared past her. Finally she had made out one, M – A – N, MAN. How delighted she was! With what pleasure did she place the cardboard triumphantly beneath the image of the person!”(173). This facet of the Montessori technique, by which youngsters are left to play totally different studying video games at their will, creates a starvation and pleasure for studying.

Particularly at a younger age, it’s a lot simpler and pleasant for kids to study with didactic supplies as an alternative of merely sitting in a classroom and taking notes when the youngsters are wishing they have been some other place or doing one thing else the complete time they’re meant to be studying. With the usage of didactic supplies and by permitting college students to make use of them or not use them each time they need to, the Montessori system offers the scholars the liberty to study what they need to once they need to. That is particularly essential once we take into consideration how the usual technique of training, just like the banking system, forces college students to ‘study’ even when the scholars don’t need the data being shoved down their throats, and this results in a type of synthetic studying the place college students memorize data or to a mechanical course of the place college students don’t internalize the data and neglect it as quickly as they don’t seem to be being graded on it.

Montessori criticized the usual technique of training tremendously. Along with seeing it as inefficient and outdated, Montessori, like Freire, believed that it was oppressive to the scholars. In her guide The Montessori Methodology, Montessori writes, “The precept of slavery nonetheless pervades pedagogy, and due to this fact, the identical precept pervades the college”(16). Montessori then goes on to explain a easy instance which illustrates her level. She talks about how chairs are particularly designed for lecture rooms. These classroom chairs, Montessori posits, are made to limit as a lot motion as potential, drive the youngsters to look ahead in the direction of the instructor, and make them as seen as potential to the instructor so the youngsters at all times really feel like they’re being watched and should behave correctly.

Montessori views the usual technique of training as an antagonistic mannequin by which the instructor is mainly preventing the coed, always attempting to manage him and repress his infantile habits whereas trying to drive feed him data that the coed doesn’t need. Regardless of the numerous research which have proven that the Montessori Methodology is more practical and humane than the usual technique, and despite the fact that greater than 100 years have handed because it was launched to america, little or no has modified in the best way youngsters are educated right here.

In Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Freire says that training is used as a device to control and management plenty. He proposes that the banking system of training exists and persists not due to its effectiveness at getting college students to study, however relatively its effectiveness at indoctrinating youngsters into believing one thing that the individuals who management the faculties need them to consider. This results in an essential query. What’s extra essential for america: that youngsters develop up with the ability to suppose for themselves, or that they develop up believing what others deem right? Right here, particularly in public excessive colleges, there’s a robust emphasis on nationalism and plenty of concepts are taught as inherently inferior to others. For instance, it’s not solely taught in colleges that capitalism is healthier and extra humane than, as an illustration, socialism and communism, however relatively college students are additionally taught to worry these ideas and to worry the very concept of questioning or interested by social buildings aside from capitalism and financial fashions aside from the free market. Moreover, lecturers typically promote the false portrayal of america because the hero and police of the complete world. The U.S. training system just isn’t meant to liberate college students and encourage them to hunt data, however relatively it’s meant to maintain them in line and is used as a device to form a sort of one who thinks solely so far as is socially acceptable. How a lot our training system is manipulated by the pursuits of the individuals who management it’s questionable. Nonetheless, it’s clear that whether or not or not our training system is getting used to manage the plenty, it lends itself properly to take action and can be utilized to sway folks’s opinion and repress concepts that may go in opposition to the institution.

Our present training system is nearer to the banking system than to one thing just like the Montessori Methodology by which the event of the kid is put first and kids are offered with a type of problem-posing training. It’s doubtless troublesome to alter to a manner of educating that enables college students to study for themselves and be impressed to actively search data. place to start out can be to make use of didactic supplies to the extent that’s potential and to current college students with differing sides of arguments in a judgment-free method. One other essential level is that inventive thought ought to at all times be inspired and dissenting concepts ought to be welcome and debated completely. By making the transition to an training system that’s problem-posing, college students can be inspired to suppose critically and create totally different, distinctive and creative methods to unravel issues. This alteration would result in monumental progress in innovation and scientific improvement, in addition to giving college students a extra humane and interactive manner of studying.


Source by John A Martinez

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